Happy Women Day Facemeu Era 2, 2017

women's day, nepali women

Women belong in all places where decisions are being made… It shouldn’t be that women are the exception.

– Ruth Bader Ginsburg

There is no limit to what we, as women, can accomplish.

– Michelle Obama

We cannot all succeed when half of us are held back.

– Malala Yousafzai

Don’t let anyone tell you you’re weak because you’re a woman.

– Mary Kom

In the future, there will be no female leaders. There will just be leaders.

– Sheryl Sandberg

I am a woman. Phenomenally. Phenomenal woman, that’s me.

– Maya Angelou

I think the best role models for women are people who are fruitfully and confidently themselves, who bring light into the world.

– Meryl Streep

There’s something so special about a woman who dominates in a man’s world. It takes a certain grace, strength, intelligence, fearlessness, and the nerve to never take no for an answer.

– Rihanna

Feminism isn’t about making women strong. Women are already strong. It’s about changing the way the world perceives that strength.

– G.D. Anderson

A woman is the full circle. Within her is the power to create, nurture and transform.

– Diane Mariechild

Happy New Year Facemeu Era 2

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Month: 1, 2

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Month 3, 4

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Month: 5,6

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Month 7, 8

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Month 9 and 10

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Month 11, 12

Shilachahare (Shiva ratri) 2017

maha shiva ratri, lord shiva, maha devi, hindus in nepal

Shivaratri is celebrated as birth-night of Lord Shiva.

Sahivaratri is the night of Falgun Krishna Chaturdasi under Hindu Lunar Calendar. This year Shivaratri is on Feb 27, 2014 that is on Falgun 15, 2070 in Bikram Sambat Calendar.

The Lingodbhav Moorti of lord Shiva was self immerged at midnight of Shivaratri. So, this night is celebrated as the Birth-night of lord Shiva. Lord Shiva is called Bholenath too.

There are many stories behind the celebration of Shivaratri.

During Samundra Manthan, the poison Halahal came out of the ocean. It started creating destruction all over. To protect the universe from the devastation Lord Shiva drank the poison and managed to keep it in his throat. His throat turned blue. Since then he is known as Nilkantha. Nila Kantha in Sanskrit is one with blue throat.

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साहित्यकार डा. ओमवीर सिह बस्न्यात

om bir singh basnayat, nepali literal person

डा. ओमवीरसिंह बस्न्यात
जन्मः १ नोभेम्बर, १९८२,
बि.सं. १९१९ मंसीर १६ गते , धर्मस्थली, काठमार्डौं
माताः शोभाकुमारी बस्न्यात
कान्छि आमा लीलाकुमारी बस्न्यात
पिताः मीनमर्दन बस्न्यात
शिक्षाः एच.ए, बि.ए.(त्रि.वि.) डी.एच.ई.(दिल्ली विश्वविद्यालय), एम.डी.(कलकता विश्वविद्यालय)
पदः वरिष्ठ जनस्वास्थ्य अधिकृत(प्रा उपसचिव)
अनुभवः निजामति स्वास्थ्य सेवा विभागमा ३१ वर्ष सेवागरी अवकाश ।

Om bir singh Basnayat, King Birendra shah

Om bir singh taking certificate with king Birendra Shah

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Om Bir singh Basnayat’s Books list

प्रकाशित कृतिहरुः
महाकाव्यः

१) पासाङ ल्हामू
२) सेवा सैनिक झपट
३) पृथ्वी महाकाव्य
४) भानुभक्त महाकाव्य
५) चक्रपाणि
६) बलिपूजा
७) सगरमाथा महाकाव्य
८) मोतीराम महाकाव्य
९) त्रिमूर्ति महाकाव्य
१०) राष्टकवि घिमिरे

खण्डकाव्यः

१) त्यो गाउमा
२) गौरीघाट महाकाव्य
३) रारा
४) अन्तर्घात
५) आमा
६) एउटी म रानी चरी

कथा : ओम कथा संग्रह

कविता : ओमगीत कविता संग्रह

उपन्यासः अन्तरविरोध

om bir singh with his family, nepali family

Om Bir Singh Family Photo

certicicates, om bir Singh Basnayat

Om Bir Singh Basnayat certificate

पुरस्कार । सम्मानः
१) पासाङ ल्हामू प्रतिष्ठान सम्मान पुरस्कार
२) झपट गुठी सम्मान पुरस्कार
३) कपिलवस्तु साहित्य सम्मान पुरस्कार
४) जनमत विशिष्ट सदस्य सम्मान
५) वाणी साहित्यिक प्रतिष्ठान गेरु अम्बिका पुरस्कार
६) अन्य विभिन्न सरकारी तथा गैर सरकारी संघ संंस्थासंग सम्बन्ध थुप्रै
सम्मान तथा पुरस्कारबाट सम्मानित ।
४) प्रकृतिकी रानी (कविता संग्रह भाग २)
५) सूर्यवंशी, वत्स गोत्रीय कु“वर, राणाजीहरुका वंश चिनारी
६) सनातन आर्य—हिन्दू धर्ममा एक दिव्य दृष्टि
७) एक पूmल अनेक रङ्ग (कविता संग्रह भाग ३)

om bir singh, nepali literal person

Om Bir Singh Basnayat certificate

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Om Bir Singh Basnayat certificate

Dr. Om bir singh Basnayat, Om bir singh basnet

Nepali slok by Om bir Singh Basnayat

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Om bir singh Basnayat Sayapatri pratisthan Nepal

Happy 26th Democracy day – 2017

happy democracy day, democracy in Nepal

Democracy Day or Rashtriya Prajatantra Diwas is celebrated every year on Falgun 7th. It is a public holiday in Nepal. This day is celebrated in Nepal to commemorate the day when Nepalese were released from the clutches of 104-year-long Rana autocracy on February 18, 1951.

The People of Nepal experienced a life full of nightmares while under the ruling power of the Ranas. The Ranas had taken away a lot of opportunities away from the people while the members of their family were enjoying the extravagance and abundance that they had from the highest office. Anomalies such as corruption, discrimination and violent behaviors have ruled the country during this period of Nepali history.

Nepal: The struggle for a democracy

Jagana Uthana by Bikash Shrestha- Nepali Patriotic Pop Rock Song

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ओझोलमा परेको व्यक्तित्व

Ram Raja Kunwar, bal bhadra kunwar, durbar high school

पुस्तकको विषयवस्तु (ओझोलमा परेको व्यक्तित्व) :
राष्ट्र, राष्ट्रियता, स्वाभिमान, ऐतिहासिक, प्राकृतिक कुरा, प्राकृतिक सौन्द्रर्य तथा समाज परिवारमा घटेका, घट्न सक्ने घटना, कथा व्यथालाई नै मेरो पुस्तकका विषयवस्तुका चूरो बनेका छन् ।

शूरवीर बलभद्र कुँवरका

nepali british fight, balbhadra kunwar

Bir Balbhadra Kunwar

वीर बलभद्र कुँवर वृक्ष वंशावली

tree diagram bal bhadra kunwar tree diagram

Tree diagram of balbhadra kunwar

ओझोलमा परेको व्यक्तित्व

शूरवीर बलभद्र कुँवरका जलाती (पाँचौ पुस्ता) रामराजा कुँवर—

Principal of Durbar High School, ram raja kunwar

Ram raja Kunwar


बायो डाटा
नामथरः रामराजा कुँवर
जन्मः २००६ साल पुस ५ गते
ठेगानाः छग्डोल, वडा नं. ६, नार्गाजुन नगरपालिका, काठमाडौं, नेपाल ।
योग्यताः स्नातोक्तरसम्मको अध्ययन, साहित्य, इतिहास, धर्ममा स्वेच्छिक अध्ययन ।
पेशाः शिक्षण
विभिन्न सामाजिक संघ संंस्थाहरुमा संंलग्नभई सल्लाह(सेवा प्रदान गर्ने ।
रुचिः साहित्य, सेवा, धर्म, इतिहास ।
विवाहः २०३६ सालमा इश्वरी कडेलसंंग ।
छोराछोरी छोरा एक छोरी दुई ।
आमाः बोधकुमारी
बाबु लोकेन्द्रबहादुर कुँवर
सेवा(अवकाश) :२०६६

balbhadra kunwar books, ramraja kunwar

History of Balbhadra Kunwar


कवि, इतिहासकार र उपन्यासकारका सृजनाहरु—
१) नालापानी युद्धका नायक वीर बलभद्र (इतिहास)
२) वीर बलभद्र (ऐतिहासिक उपन्यास)
३) आह्वान (कविता संग्रह भाग १)
४) प्रकृतिकी रानी (कविता संग्रह भाग २)
५) सूर्यवंशी, वत्स गोत्रीय कुँवर, राणाजीहरुका वंश चिनारी
६) सनातन आर्य—हिन्दू धर्ममा एक दिव्य दृष्टि
७) एक फूल अनेक रङ्ग (कविता संग्रह भाग ३)
Balbhadra kunwar book

History of Balbhadra Kunwar

Happy Valentine day – 2017

Valentine in Nepal, valentine day

Valentine’s Day, also called Saint Valentine’s Day or the Feast of Saint Valentine, is an annual holiday celebrated on February 14. It originated as a Western Christian liturgical feast day honoring one or more early saints named Valentinus, and is recognized as a significant cultural and commercial celebration in many regions around the world, although it is not a public holiday in any country.

Several martyrdom stories associated with the various Valentines that were connected to February 14 were added to later martyrologies, including a popular hagiographical account of Saint Valentine of Rome which indicated he was imprisoned for performing weddings for soldiers who were forbidden to marry and for ministering to Christians, who were persecuted under the Roman Empire. According to legend, during his imprisonment, Saint Valentine healed the daughter of his jailer, Asterius, and before his execution, he wrote her a letter signed “Your Valentine” as a farewell.

The day first became associated with romantic love within the circle of Geoffrey Chaucer in the 14th century, when the tradition of courtly love flourished. In 18th-century England, it evolved into an occasion in which lovers expressed their love for each other by presenting flowers, offering confectionery, and sending greeting cards (known as “valentines”). In Europe, Saint Valentine’s Keys are given to lovers “as a romantic symbol and an invitation to unlock the giver’s heart”, as well as to children, in order to ward off epilepsy (called Saint Valentine’s Malady). Valentine’s Day symbols that are used today include the heart-shaped outline, doves, and the figure of the winged Cupid. Since the 19th century, handwritten valentines have given way to mass-produced greeting cards.

Saint Valentine’s Day is an official feast day in the Anglican Communion, as well as in the Lutheran Church. Many parts of the Eastern Orthodox Church also celebrate Saint Valentine’s Day, albeit on July 6 and July 30, the former date in honor of the Roman presbyter Saint Valentine, and the latter date in honor of Hieromartyr Valentine, the Bishop of Interamna (modern Terni)

Best Nepali Valentine Song by Swor Samrat Narayan Gopal

Valentine Song

Shree Panchami, Basanta panchami or Saraswati Pooja

shree panchami, hindu goddess saraswati

Shree Panchami, Basanta panchami or Saraswati Pooja is one of the most important festivals in Nepal. Basanta Panchami is the day when winter ends and spring starts. Vasant Panchami falls in January-February (Magh – Fagun). We worship Goddess Saraswati in this day.

Goddess Saraswati is regarded as the goddess of knowledge. She is worshiped as the source of all intelligence and creativity. Her blessings are the source of innovation and knowledge . She is the creator of art, music, science and all education.

Saraswati is one of the greatest creation of Lord Bhrama. She is believed to be the most beautiful creation of Brahma.

या कुंदेंदु तुषारहार धवला, या शुभ्र वस्त्रावृता |
या वीणावर दण्डमंडितकरा, या श्वेतपद्मासना ||

Saraswati is four handed Goddess seated on a white lotus wearing white sari. Her vehicle is a white Swan. She holds Veena, Book and a garland in her hands.

Saraswati Puja

When is Shree Panchami

Saraswati pooja is observed on Magh Sukla Panchami. Saraswati pooja is done on Panchami, so the day is called Shree Panchami.

This year Shree Panchami is on 21st of Magh, 2070. This date coincide with February 4, 2014 in Gregorian calendar.

Saras in Sanskrit signifies flow and wati means the bearer. Saraswati is “she who has flow”. Sara also means essence and swati means self. Therefore, she is regarded as self-essence.

What do we do in Saraswati puja in Nepal

The day is very auspicious day. This is the day for many Nepali kids start writing their first letters and alphabets. Children are taken to Saraswati temple and asked to read and write first letter of their life. The wall of Swaraswati temples across the country are scribbled by Nepali Alphabet, numbers and slokas. Kids use white chalk to write on the slate or wall. Therefore, it is very important day for every kid. It is believed, Shree Panchami is the best day to start learning new things. Students worship books, pens, notebooks and other instruments. Musician worship his/her instruments. Professionals worships their tools. In one sentence, this is the day when the source of knowledge, art and education are worshiped.

Students worship goddess Saraswati with more diligence and respect. Schools and colleges have special celebration of Saraswati puja in house. In Madhesh and Terai region of Nepal there is tradition of collecting money to build and establish idols of goddess Saraswati at the town avenues. People visit the idols and pay homage and regards. People sometimes organize idols cometetions too. The community who establish the best idol wins and is awarded. This adds more fun to the celebration.

Since this day is believes to be very good and auspicious people get married, start new business and start new venture in this day.

There are many temples of Swaraswati across Nepal. In every temple vicinity there is always a small separate temple for Saraswati. It is a tradition of establishing Saraswati and Ganesh in every temple in Nepal.

Across Kathmandu valley there are three main temples of Goddess Saraswoti. They are Saraswoti Temple in Lele, Saraswoti temple in Swyambhu, Nil Saraswoti temple in Gairidhara. Devotees in Kathmandu valley visit these temples from early morning to late in the evening during the Saraswati Day.

Saraswati Vandana

या कुंदेंदु तुषारहार धवला, या शुभ्र वस्त्रावृता |
या वीणावर दण्डमंडितकरा, या श्वेतपद्मासना ||
या ब्रह्माच्युतशंकरप्रभ्रृतिभिर्देवै: सदा वन्दिता |
सा मां पातु सरस्वती भगवती नि:शेष्य जाड्यापहा ||

Saraswati Sloka

सरस्वती मया दृष्टा वीणापुस्तकधारिणी
हंसवाहनसंयुक्ता विद्यादानं करोतु मे
प्रथमं भारती नाम द्वितीयञ्च सरस्वती
तृतीयं शारदा देवी चतुर्थ हंसवाहिनी
पञ्चमं तु जगन्माता षष्ठं वागीश्वरी तथा
सप्तमं चैव कौमारी अष्टमं वरदायिनी
नवमं बुद्धिदात्री च दशमं ब्रह्मचारिणी
एकादशं चन्द्रघण्टा द्वादशं भुवनेश्वरी
द्वादशै तानि नामानि त्रिसन्ध्यं य पठेन्नरः
जिव्हाग्रे वसते तस्य ब्रह्मरूपा सरस्वती

Sloka

Ya Kunden tusharahara dhabala Ya subrabastrabita !
Ya Veenavara dandmanditakara Ya sweta padhamasana !!
Ya Brahmachyut-shankara-prabrithibhih-devai sadhha vandita !
Saa Maam paatu Saraswati Bhagwati Ni-shyeshya Jaadyaapaha !!

Meaning of Saraswati Vandana

Oh Goddess Saraswati , fair as flower of jasmine or moon or a snow flake,
Whose hands are adorned by veena who is seated in a white lotus, in white dress,
Brahma, Vishnu and Maheshwar always pray and worship whom,
Please protect us, from all the evils.

Source: weallnepali

Happy Martyrs’ Day 2017

shahid Diwas, happy Martyrs day, ganga lal shretha, dharma bhakta Mathema, Dasratha Chanda, Sukra Raj Sastri Joshi

Martyr (Nepali: शहिद; Shahid) in Nepal is a term for some one who is executed while making contributions for the welfare of the country or society. The term was originally used for individuals who died while opposing the Rana Regime which was in place in the Kingdom of Nepal from 1846 until 1951.

Lakhan Thapa is regarded as the first martyr of Nepal.

List of martyrs

Rebelled against Juddha Shamsher Jung Bahadur Rana: (4 Martyrs martyred in 1941 — represented in the Shahid Gate)

Shukraraj Shastri
Dharma Bhakta Mathema
Dashrath Chand
Ganga Lal Shrestha

Similarly,

Bhimdatta Panta
Durgananda Jha
Ratna Kumar Bantawa
Yagya Bahadur Thapa

Note: Ramhari Sharma, founder of Nepal Praja Parishad, was not given the death sentence as he was a Brahmin, and is often called a “living martyr.”

Source: WikiPedia

Merry Christmas 2016

merry christmas, sagar maharjan, anusha Manandhar, Sujana Bajracharya, Kabita Dhaubadel
Also called Noël, Nativity, Xmas, Yule Observed by Christians, many non-Christians Type Christian, cultural Significance Traditional commemoration of the birth of Jesus Observances Church services, gift giving, family and other social gatherings, symbolic decorating Date
  • December 25
    Western Christianity and some Eastern churches; secular world
  • January 7
    Some Eastern churches
  • January 6
    Armenian Apostolic and Armenian Evangelical Churches
  • January 19
    Armenian Patriarchate of Jerusalem
Frequency Annual Related to Christmastide, Christmas Eve, Advent, Annunciation, Epiphany, Baptism of the Lord, Nativity Fast, Nativity of Christ, Yule, St. Stephen’s Day

Christmas or Christmas Day (Old English: Crīstesmæsse, meaning “Christ’s Mass”) is an annual festival commemorating the birth of Jesus Christ, observed most commonly on December 25 as a religious and cultural celebration among billions of people around the world. A feast central to the Christian liturgical year, it is prepared for by the season of Advent or the Nativity Fast and initiates the season of Christmastide, which historically in the West lasts twelve days and culminates on Twelfth Night; in some traditions, Christmastide includes an Octave. Christmas Day is a public holiday in many of the world’s nations, is celebrated culturally by a large number of non-Christian people, and is an integral part of the holiday season.

christmas in nepal, nepali models celedrating christmas

Merry Christmas 2017

The celebratory customs associated in various countries with Christmas have a mix of pre-Christian, Christian, and secular themes and origins. Popular modern customs of the holiday include gift giving, completing an Advent calendar or Advent wreath, Christmas music and caroling, lighting a Christingle, an exchange of Christmas cards, church services, a special meal, and the display of various Christmas decorations, including Christmas trees, Christmas lights, nativity scenes, garlands, wreaths, mistletoe, and holly. In addition, several closely related and often interchangeable figures, known as Santa Claus, Father Christmas, Saint Nicholas, and Christkind, are associated with bringing gifts to children during the Christmas season and have their own body of traditions and lore. Because gift-giving and many other aspects of the Christmas festival involve heightened economic activity, the holiday has become a significant event and a key sales period for retailers and businesses. The economic impact of Christmas is a factor that has grown steadily over the past few centuries in many regions of the world.

While the month and date of Jesus’ birth are unknown, by the early-to-mid 4th century, the Western Christian Church had placed Christmas on December 25, a date later adopted in the East, although some churches celebrate on the December 25 of the older Julian calendar, which, in the Gregorian calendar, currently corresponds to January 7, the day after the Western Christian Church celebrates the Epiphany. The date of Christmas may have initially been chosen to correspond with the day exactly nine months after the day on which early Christians believed that Jesus was conceived, or with one or more ancient polytheistic festivals that occurred near southern solstice (i.e., the Roman winter solstice); a further solar connection has been suggested because of a biblical verse identifying Jesus as the “Sun of righteousnes

Happy New Year 2016

happy new year 2016, Gregorian calendar

New Year’s Day is observed on January 1, the first day of the year on the modern Gregorian calendar as well as the Julian calendar. In pre-Christian Rome under the Julian calendar, the day was dedicated to Janus, god of gateways and beginnings, for whom January is also named. As a date in the Gregorian calendar of Christendom, New Year’s Day liturgically marked the Feast of the Naming and Circumcision of Jesus, which is still observed as such in the Anglican Church and Lutheran Church. In present day, with most countries now using the Gregorian calendar as their de facto calendar, New Year’s Day is probably the most celebrated public holiday, often observed with fireworks at the stroke of midnight as the new year starts in each time zone. Other global New Years’ Day traditions include making New Year’s resolutions and calling one’s friends and family

Happy Yomari Puni: and Merry Christmas

yomari punhi, merry christmas, Nepali festival, Newari festival
Official name Yomari Punhi, English translation: Full Moon of Tasty Bread
Observed by Newar people
Type Newari
Celebrations Worshiping Annapurna, eating Yomari
Begins Marga Sukla Purnima
Ends 4 days later
2014 date 6 December
2015 date 25 December

 

Yomari Punhi is a Newari festival marking the end of the rice harvest. It takes place in December during the full moon day of Thinlā (थिंला), the second month in the lunar Nepal Era calendar.

Festival :

Yomari Punhi, meaning the full moon of yomari, is one of the most popular Newar festivals and is observed every year during the full moon of December. A yomari is a confection of rice flour (from the new harvest) dough shaped like fish and filled with brown cane sugar and sesame seeds, which is then steamed. This delicacy is the chief item on the menu during the post-harvest celebration of Yomari Punhi.

On this full moon day, people of the Kathmandu Valley offer worship to Annapurna, the goddess of grains, for the rice harvest. Groups of kids go around neighborhood to beg yomari cakes from housewives in the evening. Sacred masked dances are performed in the villages of Hari Siddhi and Thecho at the southern end of the Valley to mark the festival.In a yomari people keep Chakhu a chocolate like food or khuwa a ricotta cheese like liquid.

Also called Noël, Nativity, Xmas, Yule
Observed by Christians, many non-Christians
Type Christian, cultural
Significance Traditional commemoration of the birth of Jesus
Observances Church services, gift giving, family and other social gatherings, symbolic decorating
Date
  • December 25
    Western Christianity and some Eastern churches; secular world
  • January 7
    Some Eastern churches
  • January 6
    Armenian Apostolic and Armenian Evangelical Churches
  • January 19
    Armenian Patriarchate of Jerusalem
Frequency Annual
Related to Christmastide, Christmas Eve, Advent, Annunciation, Epiphany, Baptism of the Lord, Nativity Fast, Nativity of Christ, Yule, St. Stephen’s Day

Christmas or Christmas Day (Old English: Crīstesmæsse, meaning “Christ’s Mass”) is an annual festival commemorating the birth of Jesus Christ, observed most commonly on December 25 as a religious and cultural celebration among billions of people around the world. A feast central to the Christian liturgical year, it is prepared for by the season of Advent or the Nativity Fast and initiates the season of Christmastide, which historically in the West lasts twelve days and culminates on Twelfth Night; in some traditions, Christmastide includes an Octave. Christmas Day is a public holiday in many of the world’s nations, is celebrated culturally by a large number of non-Christian people, and is an integral part of the holiday season.

The celebratory customs associated in various countries with Christmas have a mix of pre-Christian, Christian, and secular themes and origins. Popular modern customs of the holiday include gift giving, completing an Advent calendar or Advent wreath, Christmas music and caroling, lighting a Christingle, an exchange of Christmas cards, church services, a special meal, and the display of various Christmas decorations, including Christmas trees, Christmas lights, nativity scenes, garlands, wreaths, mistletoe, and holly. In addition, several closely related and often interchangeable figures, known as Santa Claus, Father Christmas, Saint Nicholas, and Christkind, are associated with bringing gifts to children during the Christmas season and have their own body of traditions and lore.[21] Because gift-giving and many other aspects of the Christmas festival involve heightened economic activity, the holiday has become a significant event and a key sales period for retailers and businesses. The economic impact of Christmas is a factor that has grown steadily over the past few centuries in many regions of the world.

While the month and date of Jesus’ birth are unknown, by the early-to-mid 4th century, the Western Christian Church had placed Christmas on December 25, a date later adopted in the East, although some churches celebrate on the December 25 of the older Julian calendar, which, in the Gregorian calendar, currently corresponds to January 7, the day after the Western Christian Church celebrates the Epiphany. The date of Christmas may have initially been chosen to correspond with the day exactly nine months after the day on which early Christians believed that Jesus was conceived, or with one or more ancient polytheistic festivals that occurred near southern solstice (i.e., the Roman winter solstice); a further solar connection has been suggested because of a biblical verse identifying Jesus as the “Sun of righteousness”

Happy Bhai tika (Kija Puja)

happy bhai tika, nepali festival tihar, main event of tihar

Bhai Tika or Kijā Pujā

The fifth and last day of Tihar is called Bhai Tika or Kija Puja and is observed by sisters applying tika to the foreheads of their brothers to ensure long life and thank them for the protection they provide. It is believed that Yamraj, the God of Death, visited his sister, Goddess Yamuna, on this day during which she applied the auspicious tika on his forehead, garlanded him and fed him special dishes. Together, they ate sweets, talked and enjoyed themselves to their hearts’ content. Upon parting, Yamraj gave Yamuna a special gift as a token of his affection and, in return, Yamuna gave him a lovely gift which she had made with her own hands. That day Yamraj announced that anyone who receives tilak from his sister will never die on that day. Sisters make a special garland for their brothers from a flower that wilts only after a couple of months, symbolizing the sister’s prayer for her brother’s long life. Brothers sit on the floor while their sisters perform their puja. The puja follows a traditional ritual in which sisters circle brothers, dripping oil on the floor from a copper pitcher and applying oil to their brother’s hair, following which a seven-colour tika is applied on the brother’s forehead. Next, brothers give tikas to their sisters in the same fashion along with an exchange of gifts. This ritual is practised regardless of whether the brother is younger or older than the sister. Those without a sister or brother join relatives or friends for tika. This festival strengthens the close relationship between brothers and sisters. In addition to these, Newars make colourful Ashtamangala mandalas and recite chants and procedures in accordance with Tantric rituals. Along with the seven-coloured tika, sisters provide brothers with Sagun, sweets, Makhamali (Gomphrena globosa) garland, and a sacred cotton thread of Tantric importance, similar to Janai thread meant to protect their bodies.

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Nhudanya Vintuna 1136 (Happy New Year 1136)

Nhudanya Vintuna 1136, Nepal Sambat, Newari New Year, Nepali festival

Nepal Era (नेपाल सम्बत Nepāl Sambat) is the national lunar calendar of Nepal. The era started on 20 October 879 AD and was in widespread use for all daily purposes until the beginning of the 20th century when it came under official disapproval. Nepal Sambat appeared on coins, stone and copper plate inscriptions, royal decrees, chronicles, Hindu and Buddhist manuscripts, legal documents and correspondence.

Today, it is used for ceremonial purposes and to determine the dates to celebrate religious festivals and commemorate birthdays and death anniversaries. The year 2013-14 AD corresponds to 1134 in Nepal Sambat and 2070-71 in the Bikram Sambat or Vikram Samvat calendar.

New Year Best Wishes
Also called Nava Barsha (नव वर्ष),
Nhudan (न्हूदँ)
Type Cultural, religious (Hindu, Buddhist)
Significance New Year’s Day of Nepal’s national lunar calendar
Celebrations Cultural rallies, musical processions, sand painting displays, welcome arches, public functions, family meal
2014 date Friday, 24 October,
Nepal Sambat 1135
2015 date Thursday, 12 November,
Nepal Sambat 1136
Related to Mha Puja, Swanti (festival)


National era

Following a century of official neglect and even suppression, Nepal Sambat has been revived as a symbol of Nepal’s glory and national unity. In 2008, the government named it a national era. On 25 October 2011, the government decided to bring Nepal Sambat into use as the country’s national calendar, and formed a taskforce to make recommendations on its implementation. However, no action has been taken after that to bring the era into practice.

During the celebrations marking New Year’s Day of Nepal Sambat 1133 on 14 November 2012, the organizing committee demanded that Nepal Sambat too be printed on banknotes and coins while the prime minister pledged to give a public holiday on New Year’s Day from 2013.

Removal and revival

Nepal Sambat was replaced as the national calendar after the conquest of Nepal(Then Nepal referred to only kathmandu valley) by the Gorkha Kingdom in 1769. The victory of the Gorkha Kingdom resulted in the end of the Malla dynasty and the advent of the Shah dynasty. The Shahs used Saka era. However, Nepal Sambat remained in official use for a time even after the coming of the Shahs. For example, the treaty with Tibet signed during the reign of Pratap Singh Shah is dated Nepal Sambat 895 (1775 AD). It is actually the new year celebrated by 5% of the people and they are of Newar caste. The official new year of the country lies on mid April which is celebrated by millions of peoples of the country and more than billion hindu peoples around the world

In 1903, Saka Sambat in turn was superseded by Bikram Sambat as the official calendar. However, the government continued to use Saka Sambat on gold and silver coins till 1912 when it was fully replaced by Bikram Sambat.

Despite the loss of legal recognition for Nepal Sambat, many people in the Kathmandu Valley and other parts of the country have continued using the calendar for ceremonial purposes. It is used to date manuscripts, books and inscriptions. Birth and death anniversaries, and almost all the religious festivals, are observed according to the lunar calendar. Horoscopes are also based on the lunar calendar.

The government moved to restore the national status of Nepal Sambat following prolonged lobbying by cultural and social organizations, most prominently by Nepal Bhasa Manka Khala. All the major newspapers now print Nepal Sambat along with other dates on their mastheads. New Year’s Day celebrations have also spread from the Kathmandu Valley to other towns in Nepal as well as abroad.

New Year

New Year’s Day falls on the first day of the waxing moon during the Swanti festival. Traditionally, traders used to close their ledgers and open new account books on the first day of Nepal Sambat.

Newars observe New Year’s Day by performing Mha Puja (Nepal Bhasa: म्हपुजा), a ritual to purify and empower the soul for the coming New Year besides praying for longevity. During this ceremony, family members sit cross-legged in a row on the floor in front of mandalas (sand paintings) drawn for each person. Offerings are made to the mandala, and each family member is presented auspicious ritual food which includes boiled egg, smoked fish and rice wine during the Sagan ceremony.

Outdoor celebrations of the new year consist of cultural processions, pageants and rallies. Participants dressed in traditional Newar clothing like tapālan, suruwā and hāku patāsi parade on the streets. Musical bands playing various kinds of drums take part in the processions. Streets and market squares are decorated with arches, gates and banners bearing new year greetings. The president of Nepal also issues a message of greetings on the occasion of New Year’s Day.

Public functions are held in which the prime minister and other government leaders participate. Marking a break from tradition, Prime Minister Baburam Bhattarai gave his speech at the New Year’s Day program in 2011 in Nepal Bhasa.

Mha Puja and Nepal Sambat are also celebrated abroad where Nepalese have settled.

Nepal Sambat movement.

The official restoration of Nepal Sambat follows a history of struggle which began in the 1920s when Dharmaditya Dharmacharya, a Buddhist and Nepal Bhasa activist based in Kolkata, began a campaign to promote it as the national calendar. The movement was continued by language and cultural activists in Nepal with the advent of democracy following the ouster of the autocratic Rana dynasty in 1951.

The demand to make Nepal Sambat a national calendar intensified with the establishment of Nepal Bhasa Manka Khala in 1979. It organized rallies and public functions publicizing the importance of the era as a symbol of nationalism. Nepal Sambat has also emerged as a symbol to rally people against the suppression of their culture, language and literature by the politically dominant ruling classes.

The Panchayat regime suppressed the movement by arresting and imprisoning the activists. In 1987 in Kathmandu, a road running event organized to mark the New Year was broken up by police and the runners thrown in jail.

Founder

The Nepal Sambat movement achieved its first success on 18 November 1999 when the government declared the founder of the calendar, a trader of Kathmandu named Sankhadhar Sakhwa (संखधर साख्वा), a national hero. On 26 October 2003, the Department of Postal Service issued a commemorative postage stamp depicting his portrait. A statue of Sankhadhar was erected in Tansen, Palpa in western Nepal on 28 January 2012.

The government has decided to set up Sankhadhar Sakhwa National Academy in the name of the founder of the era.

History

Nepal Sambat was started in 879 AD during the reign of King Raghav Dev to commemorate the payment of all the debts of the Nepalese people by a Nepalese trader named Sankhadhar Sakhwa. According to the legend, the astrologer of the king of Bhaktapur calculated the auspicious time and date when sand swept down by the river to the confluence of the Bhacha Khusi and Bishnumati River in Kathmandu would contain gold.

So the king sent a team of porters to Kathmandu to collect sand from the spot at the special hour. A local merchant named Sankhadhar Sakhwa saw them resting with their baskets of sand at a traveler’s shelter at Maru near Durbar Square. The men had decided to take a break before returning to Bhaktapur. Sankhadhar thought it strange that people should come all this distance just to get sand. Thinking that the sand might be special, he talked the porters into dumping their load at his home, convincing them that they could always get more.

Later, Sankhadhar found gold in his sand, while the king of Bhaktapur was left with a pile of ordinary sand which his porters had dug up after the auspicious hour had passed. Sankhadhar used the windfall to repay everybody’s debts and cancel their IOUs and start a new calendar. The name Nepal Sambat was used for the calendar for the first time in Nepal Sambat 148 (1028 AD).

Use outside Kathmandu

Nepal Sambat has also been used outside Nepal Mandala in Nepal and in other countries including India, China and Mayanmar In Gorkha, a stone inscription at the Bhairav Temple at Pokharithok Bazaar contains the date Nepal Sambat 704 (1584 AD). An inscription in the Nepali language at a resthouse in Salyankot is dated Nepal Sambat 912 (1792 AD).

In east Nepal, an inscription on the Bidyadhari Ajima Temple in Bhojpur recording the donation of a door and tympanum is dated Nepal Sambat 1011 (1891 AD). The Bindhyabasini Temple in Bandipur in west Nepal contains an inscription dated Nepal Sambat 950 (1830 AD) recording the donation of a tympanum.

The Palanchowk Bhagawati Temple situated to the east of Kathmandu contains an inscription recording a land donation dated Nepal Sambat 861 (1741 AD). An inscription on a stupa in Panauti is dated Nepal Sambat 866 (1746 AD).

Similarly, Nepalese merchants based in Tibet (Lhasa Newars) used Nepal Sambat in their official documents, correspondence and inscriptions recording votive offerings. A copper plate recording the donation of a tympanum at the shrine of Chhwaskamini Ajima (Tibetan: Palden Lhamo) in the Jokhang Temple in Lhasa is dated Nepal Sambat 781 (1661 AD).

Structure

Nepal Sambat, a lunar calendar, is a variant of the Saka era Hindu calendar with the main difference being that Nepal Sambat lags behind the Saka era by 802 years. It consists of 354 days per year, due to the fact that a lunar month has 29 or 30 days based on the movement of the moon. So an intercalary month is added every third year.

This calendar came into being and into official use during the reign of king Raghavdev, immediately after the completion of the Saka Sambat 802 (on 20 October 879 AD). The year 804 was approaching within a year and according to legend, his decision was guided by his fear of the number 804, that some people still believe, brings misfortune. People with traditional belief still try to escape with number 8 that comes together with 12. Doing math correctly, 804 adds up to 12 and 804 means 8 along with 12.

Nepal Sambat is a unique calendar in the sense that all other calendars are named after rulers or religious leaders. Nepal Sambat is the only calendar which is named after a country.

Months of the year

Devanagari script Roman script Corresponding Gregorian month Name of Full Moon
1. कछला Kachhalā November Saki Milā Punhi, Kārtik Purnimā
2. थिंला Thinlā December Yomari Punhi, Dhānya Purnimā
3. पोहेला Pohelā January Milā Punhi, Paush Purnimā
4. सिल्ला Sillā February Si Punhi, Māghi Purnimā
5. चिल्ला Chillā March Holi Punhi, Phāgu Purnimā
6. चौला Chaulā April Lhuti Punhi, Bālāju Purnimā
7. बछला Bachhalā May Swānyā Punhi, Baisākh Purnimā
8. तछला Tachhalā June Jyā Punhi, Gaidu Purnimā
9. दिल्ला Dillā July Dillā Punhi, Guru Purnimā
10. गुंला Gunlā August Gun Punhi, Janāi Purnimā (Raksha Bandhan)
11. ञला Yanlā September Yenyā Punhi, Bhādra Purnimā
12. कौला Kaulā October Katin Punhi, Kojāgrat Purnimā

An intercalary month named Anālā (अनाला) is added every three years.

Milestones

888 Nepal Sambat (1768) – Prithvi Narayan Shah’s Gorkhali forces take Kathmandu.
926 (1806) – Bhandarkhal Massacre establishes Bhimsen Thapa as the prime minister of Nepal.
966 (1846) – Kot massacre establishes Jang Bahadur Rana as the prime minister of Nepal and the Rana dynasty.
1054 (1934) – Great Earthquake strikes Nepal.
1061 (1941) – Four martyrs executed by the Rana regime.
1071 (1951) – Revolution topples Rana regime and establishes democracy.
1080 (1960) – Parliamentary system abolished and Panchayat system established.
1111 (1991) – First parliamentary election held after abolition of Panchayat and reinstatement of democracy.
1121 (2001) – The king, queen and other members of the royal family are killed in Nepalese royal massacre.
1128 (2008) – Nepal becomes a republic.

Gai (Cow) Tihar and Laxmi Pujā

Laxmi Puja, Happy tihar, happy dipawali, goddess Laxmi

The morning of third day is Gai Tihar (worship of the cow). In Hinduism, cow signifies prosperity and wealth. In ancient times people benefitted a lot from the cow. Its milk, dung even urine was used for different purposes like purification. Thus on this day people show their gratefulness to the cow by garlanding and feeding the cow with the best grass. Houses are cleaned and the doorways and windows are decorated with garlands made of Sayapatri( marigolds) and Makhamali flowers (chrysanthemums).

In the evening Laxmi, the goddess of wealth is thanked for all the benefits that were bestowed on the families by lighting oil lamps (Diyo) or candles on doorways and windows to welcome prosperity and well being. At night the girls enjoy dancing and visiting all the houses of the neighborhood with musical instruments singing and dancing known as Bhailo all night long collecting money as tip from houses and share the bounty amongst themselves.

From the third day onwards tihar is celebrated with Deusi and Bhailo along with light and fireworks. . Deusi is mostly sung by the boys while the Bhailo is sung by the girls. Deusi is balladic in nature and tells the story of the festival, with one person in the group narrating and the rest as the chorus. In return the home owners give them money, fruit and Selroti (a special type of Nepali roundels made of rice flour and sugar). Nowadays social workers and politician along with young people visit local homes and sing these songs, and collect funds for welfare and social activities

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Kukur (Dog) Tihar or Khichā Pujā

kukur tihar, khicha puja, dog day, nepali culture

The second day is called Kukur Tihar or Khichā Pujā (worship of the dogs). It is also called the Khicha Puja by the Newars. Dogs, which are believed to be messengers of Lord Yamaraj, the God of Death, are worshiped once each year on this day. People offer garlands, tika and delicious food to dogs and acknowledge the cherished relationship between humans and dogs. This day is also observed as Narka Chaturdashi.

View More About Tihar

Tihar Nepali festival

Laxmi Puja, Happy tihar, happy dipawali, goddess Laxmi

Tihar (Nepali: तिहार) or Swanti (Newar: स्वन्ति), or Deepawali ( (Devanagari: दीपावली ) is a five-day-long Hindu festival celebrated in Nepal which comes soon after Dashain. It is similar to Deepawali celebrated in India, but with a regional variation. In Nepal, all Hindu ethnic groups celebrate this festival with their own variation. Among the Newars, it is popularly known as Deepawali or Swanti.[2] The festival is celebrated from Trayodashi of Kartik Krishna to Kartik Shukla Dwitiya every year. Tihar in general signifies the festival of lights, where diyas are lit both inside and outside the houses to make it illuminate at night. The five-day festival is considered to be of great importance as it shows reverence to not just the humans and the Gods, but also to the animals like crows, cows and dogs who maintain an intense relationship with humans. People make patterns on the floor of living rooms or courtyards using materials such as colored rice, dry flour, colored sand or flower petals outside of their house, called Rangoli which is meant to be a sacred welcoming area for the Gods and Goddesses of Hinduism.

Also called Deepawali (दीपावली), Yamapanchak (यमपञ्चक)
Observed by Hindus worldwide (with various names and slight variations)
Type Hindu/Buddhist
Celebrations Decorating homes with lights, singing, dancing, gambling, etc.[citation needed]
Observances Prayers and religious rituals
Date New moon day of Kartika, celebrations begin two days prior and end two days after that date
2014 date October 21–25
2015 date November 9-13
2016 date October 28-November 1

 

Kaag (Crow) Tihar or Kwah Pujā

The first day of the festival is called Kaag Tihar or Kwah Puja (worship of the corvids).[citation needed] Crows and ravens are worshiped by offerings of sweets and dishes placed on the roofs of houses. The cawing of crows and ravens symbolizes sadness and grief in Hinduism, so devotees offer crows and ravens food to avert grief and death in their homes. Tihar among Gorkhas represents the divine attachment between humans and other animals .

Kukur (Dog) Tihar or Khichā Pujā

The second day is called Kukur Tihar or Khichā Pujā (worship of the dogs). It is also called the Khicha Puja by the Newars.[4] Dogs, which are believed to be messengers of Lord Yamaraj, the God of Death, are worshiped once each year on this day.[citation needed] People offer garlands, tika and delicious food to dogs and acknowledge the cherished relationship between humans and dogs. This day is also observed as Narka Chaturdashi.

Gai (Cow) Tihar and Laxmi Pujā

The morning of third day is Gai Tihar (worship of the cow). In Hinduism, cow signifies prosperity and wealth. In ancient times people benefitted a lot from the cow. Its milk, dung even urine was used for different purposes like purification. Thus on this day people show their gratefulness to the cow by garlanding and feeding the cow with the best grass. Houses are cleaned and the doorways and windows are decorated with garlands made of Sayapatri( marigolds) and Makhamali flowers (chrysanthemums).

In the evening Laxmi, the goddess of wealth is thanked for all the benefits that were bestowed on the families by lighting oil lamps (Diyo) or candles on doorways and windows to welcome prosperity and well being. At night the girls enjoy dancing and visiting all the houses of the neighborhood with musical instruments singing and dancing known as Bhailo all night long collecting money as tip from houses and share the bounty amongst themselves.

From the third day onwards tihar is celebrated with Deusi and Bhailo along with light and fireworks. . Deusi is mostly sung by the boys while the Bhailo is sung by the girls. Deusi is balladic in nature and tells the story of the festival, with one person in the group narrating and the rest as the chorus. In return the home owners give them money, fruit and Selroti (a special type of Nepali roundels made of rice flour and sugar). Nowadays social workers and politician along with young people visit local homes and sing these songs, and collect funds for welfare and social activities.

Mha Pujā and Gobardhan Pujā

On the fourth day of Tihar, there are three different known pujas, depending on the people’s specific cultural background. It is observed as Goru Tihar or Goru Puja (worship of the oxen). People who follow Vaishnavism perform Govardhan Puja, which is worship towards goverdhan mountain. Cowdung is taken as representative of the mountain and is worshiped. Additionally, majority of the Newar community on the night also perform Mha Puja (worship of self). This day is also seen as the beginning of the new Nepal Sambat calendar year.

Bhai Tika or Kijā Pujā

The fifth and last day of Tihar is called Bhai Tika or Kija Puja and is observed by sisters applying tika to the foreheads of their brothers to ensure long life and thank them for the protection they provide. It is believed that Yamraj, the God of Death, visited his sister, Goddess Yamuna, on this day during which she applied the auspicious tika on his forehead, garlanded him and fed him special dishes. Together, they ate sweets, talked and enjoyed themselves to their hearts’ content. Upon parting, Yamraj gave Yamuna a special gift as a token of his affection and, in return, Yamuna gave him a lovely gift which she had made with her own hands. That day Yamraj announced that anyone who receives tilak from his sister will never die on that day. Sisters make a special garland for their brothers from a flower that wilts only after a couple of months, symbolizing the sister’s prayer for her brother’s long life. Brothers sit on the floor while their sisters perform their puja. The puja follows a traditional ritual in which sisters circle brothers, dripping oil on the floor from a copper pitcher and applying oil to their brother’s hair, following which a seven-colour tika is applied on the brother’s forehead. Next, brothers give tikas to their sisters in the same fashion along with an exchange of gifts. This ritual is practised regardless of whether the brother is younger or older than the sister. Those without a sister or brother join relatives or friends for tika. This festival strengthens the close relationship between brothers and sisters. In addition to these, Newars make colourful Ashtamangala mandalas and recite chants and procedures in accordance with Tantric rituals. Along with the seven-coloured tika, sisters provide brothers with Sagun, sweets, Makhamali (Gomphrena globosa) garland, and a sacred cotton thread of Tantric importance, similar to Janai thread meant to protect their bodies.

Kaag (Crow) Tihar or Kwah Pujā

kag tihar, crow tihar, festival of crow, nepali festival

The first day of the festival is called Kaag Tihar or Kwah Puja (worship of the corvids).Crows and ravens are worshiped by offerings of sweets and dishes placed on the roofs of houses. The cawing of crows and ravens symbolizes sadness and grief in Hinduism, so devotees offer crows and ravens food to avert grief and death in their homes. Tihar among Gorkhas represents the divine attachment between humans and other animals .

Rare God and Goddess dance Baghbhairab dance

nepali festival, world top culture, 12 years bagbhairav dance, god and goddess dance in nepal

Twelve years Baghbhairab dance at Kirtipur, Kathmandu, Nepal.

Twelve years Baghbhairab dance at Kirtipur, Kathmandu, Nepal.

Posted by Gyanu Raja Maharjan on Friday, October 23, 2015

Baghbhairab dance 12th years god dance is going on at kirtipur

Posted by Gyanu Raja Maharjan on Friday, October 23, 2015

Navapatrika Fulpati or Saptami in Vijaya Dashami

dashain nepali festival, nepali festival dashain, ghatasthapana, start of dashian

Phool is Flower and pati is leaves and plants. FulPati literally means flowers, leaves and plants.

There is a tradition in Nepal of bringing nine types of Phoolpati into the pooja room of the house with a celebration in the seventh day of Navaratri Pooja. Therefore, the seventh day of Vijaya Dashami is also called Phoolpati in Nepal.

When is Saptami this year?

Saptami is the seventh day of Vijaya Dasami festival. This year Satami is on Ashwin 15, 2071. That is October 1, 2014 in English calendar.

Nine ingredients of fulpati (navapatriva)

The nine ingredients mix of fulpati is called navapatriva. Navapatriva consists of kera ko bot , darim, dhanko bala, haledo, manabriksha, kachuki, belpatra, ashok, and jayanti.

Banana plant (kera ko bot) represents Goddess Brahmani (ब्राम्हणी), who bestows peace.

Pomegranate (darim) represents Goddess Rakta Dantika (रक्त दंतिका ) who helps and blesses the worshipper.

In rice stalk (dhanko bala) lives Lakshmi, the goddess of wealth.

Goddess Durga grace the turmeric plant (haledo) and put end to obstacles.

Goddess Chamunda resides in manabriksha, who puts end to the evil.

Ginger plant (अदुवा) represents Goddess Kalika (कालिका) who blesses mankind.

In Wood Apple Tree (bel plant) lives lord Shiva, and is the favorite fruit of Lords Vishnu and Shiva.

In the Ashok plant resides Goddess Sokarahita.

Jayanti represents Godde ss Kartiki.

What to do with Navapatrika

Navapatrika is decorated outside the house and carried inside the Dashain Ghar. It is carried inside the pooja ghar at seventh day at any time of the day depending upon the family tradition. After this, navapatrika Puja is carried out. The fulpati is kept in Dashain Ghar and worshiped along with the Jamara planted in Ghatasthapana day. Navapatrika is taken out of pooja ghar in the 10th day and Bisarjan in Holy River. There is a tradition where people bisarjan it on the 15th day with bisarjan with Jamara.
Why to bring fulpati to your home (What is significance of Navapatrika)

Bringing Phulpati brings all the nine goddess to your home. All nine plants represent goddess and all goddess represents Health, Wealth and prosperity. Entering Phulpati home is entering health, wealth and prosperity home.

What else we do in Saptami

On this day, Saraswoti, the goddess of education and knowledge is worshiped. Besides this, people following different occupations, bring the tools of their trades inside the Dashain Ghar and worship them and take them out on the 10th day only. Students and teachers do puja of their books and other study materials. Businessmen people honor and their scales and ledgers.

Tailors venerate their sewing machines and so on.

Nepali Tradition of Fulpati before the fall of Royal Regime

Navapatriva for phulpati are carried by the helpers from the royal Dashain Ghar of Gorkha via the ancient route to Jeevanpur in Dhading district. The person carrying the phulpati swims through Budhi Gandaki River instead of walking on the bridge above it or taking a boat. It is a tradition.

A group of assistant priests from the royal Dashain Ghar of Basantapur place of Kathmandu would be waiting for this person in Dhading to carry the phulpate to Kathmandu. They bring it to Jamal and from there the phulpati
receives royal treatment. It is placed in a palanquin under a gold-tipped ornate umbrella. Here, the phulpati is welcomed by the Royal Nepalese Army, Nepal police and government dignitaries. An army platoon of the royal priest leads the phulpati parade to Hanumandhoka Palace.

There are Fulpati gun fires performed by Nepali army, this is the indication to the people, that the fulpati has been entered successfully.

The Navapatrika is brought from old kingdom of Shah Dynasty, the Gorkha Durbar to Kathmandu, the capital of unified Nepal. Prithivi Narayan Shah was king of gorkha, who unified Nepal.

Bringing fulpati from Gorkha to Kathmandu signified that Kathmandu is blessed with the same blessing of Durga Bhawani equal to Gorkha.

Kings used to observe this parade in Royal days.

Nepal government is still follows the same rituals and culture. President of Nepal witness and perform the rituals instead of King now.

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Pachali Bahirab Festival – Pachimura

pachali jatra, nepali festival

Bhairab is one of Lord Shiva’s manifestations or another form of Shiva. Lord, Shiva is regarded as guardian of mankind; however, his another form is Bahirav, angry form of Shiva. Bhairav is regarded as destructive incarnation of Shiva.
Pachali Bairav is in Pachali, a place in Tekhu(teku) Kathmandu.
The worship and procession with a big feast is called Jatra, mainly in Newari culture.
Therefore, Pachali Bhairav jatra is worship and procession of Lord Bhairav situated in Pachali with a big celebration and feast.

The Lakhey Band (First Newari Metal Band ) Video footage of Pachali bhairav Jatra.

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Happy Dashain 2072 (2015) to all Nepali

dashain nepali festival, nepali festival dashain, ghatasthapana, start of dashian

Dashain (Nepali: दशैं Daśãi, also Baḍādaśãi बडादशैं or Bijayā Daśamī Nepali: बिजया दशमी) is the 15-day-long national festival of Nepal.

It is the longest and the most auspicious festival in the Nepalese annual calendar, celebrated by Nepalese people throughout the globe. It is not only the longest festival of the country but is also the one which is most anticipated. The festival falls in September or October, starting from the shukla paksha (bright lunar fortnight) of the month of Ashvin and ending on purnima, the full moon. It is celebrated for 15 days; the most important days are the first, seventh, eighth, ninth and the tenth.

Dashain Music Malshree Dhul aka Mangal Dhun

Day 1: Ghatasthapana

Ghaṭasthāpanā (घटस्थापना “sowing Jamara“) marks the beginning of Dashain.Literally, it means placing a kalasha or pot, which symbolizes Durga. Ghaṭasthāpanā falls on the first day of the festival. On this day the kalasha is filled with holy water which is then covered with cow dung and sewn with barley seeds. Then the kalasha is put in the center of a rectangular sand block. The remaining bed of sand is also seeded with grains. The priest then starts the puja by asking Durga to bless the vessel with her presence. This ritual is performed at a certain auspicious time which is determined by the astrologers. The goddess is believed to reside in the vessel during navratri.

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Bunga Dyah Jatra (chariot festival) Bhoto Jatra

Nepali festival red machendranath jatra, festivals of nepal, bhoto jatra, chariot Festival

Nepali Festival Buṅga Dyaḥ Jātrā (Newar: बुंग द्यः जात्रा) is a chariot procession honoring the Buddhist deity of compassion Avalokiteśvara held in Lalitpur, Nepal. It is one of the greatest religious events in the city and the longest chariot festival celebrated in the country.

Buṅga Dyaḥ is also known as Raktalokitesvara Karunamaya and Rāto Machhindranāth and is revered as the giver of rain. The name Rato Machhendranath means Red Machhendranath in a reference to the color of the deity’s image.The chariot festival is held according to the lunar calendar, so the date is changeable. It begins on the 4th day of the bright fortnight of Bachhalā, the seventh month in the lunar Nepal Sambat calendar.

Also called Rato Machhendranath Jatra
Observed by Nepalese, Newar
Type Religious
Significance Spreads peace in the city
Celebrations Chariot procession

Chariot procession

The chariot procession was instituted to celebrate the arrival of Bunga Dyah in Nepal and the end of a devastating drought. It was started when Narendra Deva was the king (640-683 AD).

Preparations for the festival begin with the construction of a 60-foot tall chariot at Pulchok at the western end of Lalitpur. When the chariot is complete, the image of Bunga Dyah from his temple is installed in it. Revellers then drag the chariot through the streets of Lalitpur on a tour that lasts a month. The chariot of Bunga Dyah is accompanied on the journey by a similar but smaller chariot of Chākuwā Dyah (चाकुवा द्यः). The deity is another Bodhisattva and is also known as Minnāth.

The route of the chariot procession starts at Pulchok and passes through Gabahal, Hakha, Sundhara, Lagankhel and ends at Jawalakhel. As per time-honored tradition, the chariot is pulled exclusively by women on the stretch between the localities of Iti and Thati. This part of the chariot procession is known as Yākah Misāyā Bhujyā (याकः मिसाया भुज्या).

The parade finishes at the open ground of Jawalakhel which is situated at the western side of Lalitpur. There, the festivities conclude with the ceremony of Bhoto Jatra, the display of the bhoto, a traditional Nepalese vest.

Bhoto Jātrā

Bhoto Jatra, which literally means “vest festival”, is the climax of the chariot procession of Bunga Dyah Jatra. After the two chariots arrive in Jawalakhel, astrologers choose an auspicious date to hold the Bhoto Jatra festival. On the appointed day in the presence of the head of state, a government official climbs on to the chariot and holds up a jewel-studded black vest from the four sides of the chariot so that all the people gathered around can have a look at it.

The display is a re-enactment of an event that happened eons ago. According to legend, a Jyapu (Newar farmer) lost the vest which he had received as a gift from the serpent god Karkotaka Naga for doing him a favour. One day, the farmer had come to Jawalakhel to watch the chariot pulling festival where he saw someone wearing his missing garment.

A quarrel ensued over the vest, and since neither party could prove ownership, it was agreed that the undershirt would be kept with Bunga Dyah until the rightful owner comes to claim it with adequate proof. Since then, the vest has been shown to the public annually as a call to potential claimants to step forward.

The living goddess Kumari of Patan also arrives in Jawalakhel to observe Bhoto Jatra. She watches the ceremony from a special rest house. The auspicious day when the Bhoto Jatra is held is determined by astrologers, so the date is changeable. In 2014, the vest showing will be held on 22 June.

After the festival, the chariot is dismantled and the parts are stored until it is time for the procession the next year. Rato Machhendranath is taken to a temple in the nearby village of Bungamati, also known as the second home of the rain god. The deity spends the next six months in that temple.

List of Landlocked Countries.

map of landlocked countries, landlocked countries

Landlocked by a single country

Three countries are landlocked by a single country:

  •  Lesotho, a state surrounded by South Africa.
  •  San Marino, a state surrounded by Italy.
  •   Vatican City, a state forming part of Rome, thereby surrounded by Italy.

Landlocked by two countries

Seven landlocked countries are surrounded by only two mutually bordering neighbors:

  •  Andorra (between France and Spain)
  •  Bhutan (between India and China)
  •  Liechtenstein (one of the “doubly landlocked” countries, between Switzerland and Austria)
  •  Moldova (between Ukraine and Romania)
  •  Mongolia (between Russia and China)
  •    Nepal (between India and China)
  •  Swaziland (between South Africa and Mozambique)

To this group could be added two de facto states with no or limited international recognition:

  •  South Ossetia (between Russia and Georgia)
  •  Transnistria (between Ukraine and Moldova)

Doubly landlocked

A country is “doubly landlocked” or “double-landlocked” when it is surrounded entirely by one or more landlocked countries (requiring the crossing of at least two national borders to reach a coastline).

There are currently only two such countries:

  •  Liechtenstein in Central Europe, surrounded by Switzerland and Austria.
  •  Uzbekistan in Central Asia, surrounded by Afghanistan, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, and Turkmenistan.[9]

There were no doubly landlocked countries in recent times from the Unification of Germany in 1871 until the end of World War I. Liechtenstein bordered the Austro-Hungarian Empire, which had an Adriatic coastline, and Uzbekistan was then part of the Russian Empire, which had both ocean and sea access.

With the dissolution of Austria-Hungary in 1918 and creation of an independent, landlocked Austria, Liechtenstein became the sole doubly landlocked country until 1938. In the Nazi Anschluss that year Austria was absorbed into the Third Reich, which possessed a border on the Baltic Sea and the North Sea.

After World War II, Austria regained its independence and Liechtenstein once again became doubly landlocked. Uzbekistan, which had been absorbed by the new Soviet Union upon the toppling of the Russian throne in 1917, gained its independence with the dissolution of the U.S.S.R. in 1991 and became the second doubly landlocked country.

List of landlocked countries

Country Area (km²) Population Cluster
Afghanistan 652,230 31,108,077 Central Asia
Andorra 468 84,082 (none)
Armenia 29,743 3,254,300 Caucasia
Austria 83,871 8,572,895 Central Europe
Azerbaijan 86,600 8,997,401 Caucasia
Belarus 207,600 9,484,300 (none)
Bhutan 38,394 691,141 (none)
Bolivia 1,098,581 10,907,778 South America
Botswana 582,000 1,990,876 Southern Africa
Burkina Faso 274,222 15,746,232 Central Africa
Burundi 27,834 8,988,091 Central Africa
Central African Republic 622,984 4,422,000 Central Africa
Chad 1,284,000 10,329,208 Central Africa
Czech Republic 78,867 10,674,947 Central Europe
Ethiopia 1,104,300 85,237,338 Central Africa
Hungary 93,028 10,005,000 Central Europe
Kazakhstan 2,724,900 16,372,000 Central Asia
Kosovo[c] 10,908 1,804,838 Central Europe
Kyrgyzstan 199,951 5,482,000 Central Asia
Laos 236,800 6,320,000 (none)
Lesotho[d] 30,355 2,067,000 (none)
Liechtenstein 160 35,789 Central Europe
Luxembourg 2,586 502,202 (none)
Macedonia 25,713 2,114,550 Central Europe
Malawi 118,484 15,028,757 Southern Africa
Mali 1,240,192 14,517,176 Central Africa
Moldova 33,846 3,559,500 (Eastern Europe)
Mongolia 1,566,500 2,892,876 (none)
Nagorno-Karabakh Caucasia
Nepal 147,181 26,494,504 (none)
Niger 1,267,000 15,306,252 Central Africa
Paraguay 406,752 6,349,000 South America
Rwanda 26,338 10,746,311 Central Africa
San Marino 61 31,716 (none)
Serbia 88,361 7,306,677 Central Europe
Slovakia 49,035 5,429,763 Central Europe
South Ossetia 3,900 72,000 (none)
South Sudan 619,745 8,260,490 Central Africa
Swaziland 17,364 1,185,000 (none)
Switzerland 41,284 7,785,600 Central Europe
Tajikistan 143,100 7,349,145 Central Asia
Transnistria (Eastern Europe)
Turkmenistan 488,100 5,110,000 Central Asia
Uganda 241,038 32,369,558 Central Africa
Uzbekistan 447,400 27,606,007 Central Asia
Vatican City 0.44 826 (none)
Zambia 752,612 12,935,000 Southern Africa
Zimbabwe 390,757 12,521,000 Southern Africa
Total 14,776,228 475,818,737
Percentage of World 11.4% 6.9%